|Daniel 8 |
1 In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared to me, even to me Daniel, after that which appeared to me at the first.
2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.
3 Then I lifted up my eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram [Medo-Persian] which had two horns; and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.
4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.
5 And as I was considering, behold, an he-goat [Greek Empire] came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground; and the goat had a notable horn [Alexander the Great] between his eyes.
6 And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran to him in the fury of his power.
7 And I saw him come close to the ram, and he was moved with anger against him, and smote the ram, and broke his two horns. And there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him. And there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.
8 Therefore the he-goat [Alexander the Great] became very great; and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones [four generals succeeded him] toward the four winds of heaven.
9 And out of one of them [Antiochus Epiphanes] came forth a little horn, which grew exceedingly great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land [Israel].
10 And it became great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.
11 Yes, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of the sanctuary was cast down.1
12 And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced, and prospered.
13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said to that certain saint which spoke, "How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?"
14 And he said to me, "Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed."2
15 And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.
16 And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, "Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision."
17 So he came near where I stood. When he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face; but he said to me, "Understand, O son of man for at the time of the end shall be the vision."
18 Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground; but he touched me, and set me upright.
19 And he said, "Behold, I will make you know what shall be in the last end of the indignation for at the time appointed the end shall be.
20 The ram which you saw having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.
21 And the rough goat is the king of Greece; and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king [Alexander].
22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms [Alexander's four generals] shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.
23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors have come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up [Antiochus Epiphanes, originally named Mithridates].
24 And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power; and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.
25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many. He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand [Antiochus died suddenly of disease, (not a man's hand ), in 164 BC].
26 And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true. Therefore shut up the vision for it shall not take place for many years.
27 And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.
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1 Yes, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of the sanctuary was cast down. Bible scholars attribute the daily sacrifice and place of sanctuary being cast down to Antiochus Epiphanes in 165 BC. Some attribute it to Titus's destruction of the temple in 70 AD. However, Stephen Crisp, a kingdom-dwelling early Quaker, attributes the abominations to be the false church of the Roman government, which was the Roman Catholic sect's complete destruction of true Christianity completed in 388 AD. See Footnotes 1 and 3 of Daniel 12 for the detail.
There is often a physical allegory in the Old Testament of what will happen in the New Testament's spiritual age of grace, light, and faith. For example, the Jews being led into captivity to Babylon is the Old Testament physical occurrence, and the new covenant's time the devil, beast, and whore of Babylon captured the Christian religion, leaving all its followers captive to sin with no hope of ever becoming free. The Old Testament abominations of Antiochus Epiphanes to the Jewish religion and culture, (even changing their language from Hebrew to Greek, killing all who admitted they were a Jew), are also a precursor to the devil setting himself up as ruler of Christianity, completed in 388 AD, (where words are spoken from the spirit of the dragon instead of the Spirit of God, and killing all who testified of the necessity of purity and destruction of sin).
The following is the history of Antiochus Epiphanes' abominations:
Antiochus had previously deposed the Jewish High Priest Jason. When he heard that Antiochus had withdrawn from engaging the Roman army in Egypt, he gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. The official Antiochus had appointed as High Priest, Menelaus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. On Antiochus Epiphanes' return from Egypt in 167 BC, enraged by his defeat at the hand of Rome, he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.
When these happenings were reported to Antiochus, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery.
To consolidate his empire and strengthen his hold over the region, Antiochus decided to Hellenize the Jews by outlawing Judaism and by ordering the worship of Zeus as the supreme god. This was anathema to the Jews and when they refused, Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. Because of the resistance, the city was destroyed, many were slaughtered, and a military Greek citadel called the Acra was established.
Not long after this Antiochus sent an Athenian senator to force the Jews to abandon the customs of their ancestors and live no longer by the laws of God; also to profane the temple in Jerusalem and dedicate it to Olympian Zeus, and that on Mount Gerizim to Zeus the Hospitable, as the inhabitants of the place requested. They also brought into the temple things that were forbidden, so that the altar was covered with abominable offerings prohibited by the Jewish laws. A man could not keep the sabbath or celebrate the traditional feasts, nor even admit that he was a Jew. At the suggestion of the citizens of Ptolemais, a decree was issued ordering the neighboring Greek cities to act in the same way against the Jews: oblige them to partake of the sacrifices, and put to death those who would not consent to adopt the customs of the Greeks. It was obvious, therefore, that disaster impended. Thus, two women who were arrested for having circumcised their children were publicly paraded about the city with their babies hanging at their breasts and then thrown down from the top of the city wall. Others, who had assembled in nearby caves to observe the sabbath in secret, were betrayed to Philip and all burned to death.
After Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a rural Jewish priest from Modiin, Mattathias the Hasmonean, sparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods. Mattathias killed a Hellenistic Jew who stepped forward to offer a sacrifice to an idol in Mattathias' place. He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judea. After Mattathias' death about one year later, his son Judah Maccabee led an army of Jewish dissidents to victory over the Seleucid dynasty in guerrilla warfare. The term Maccabees as used to describe the Judean's army is taken from its actual use as Judah's surname. The revolt itself involved many individual battles, in which the Maccabean forces gained infamy among the Syrian army for their use of guerrilla tactics. After the victory, the Maccabees entered Jerusalem in triumph and ritually cleansed the Temple, reestablishing traditional Jewish worship there and installing Jonathan Maccabee as high priest. A large Syrian army was sent to quash the revolt, but returned to Syria on the death of Antiochus IV. Its commander Lysias, preoccupied with internal Syrian affairs, agreed to a political compromise that restored religious freedom. Following the re-dedication of the temple, the supporters of the Maccabees were divided over the question of whether to continue fighting. When the revolt began under the leadership of Mattathias, it was seen as a war for religious freedom to end the oppression of the Seleucids. However, as Maccabees realized how successful they had been, many wanted to continue the revolt as a war of national self-determination. This conflict led to the exacerbation of the divide between the Pharisees and Sadducees under later Hasmonean monarchs such as Alexander Jannaeus. Judah Maccabee led those who sought the continuation of the war of national identity. On his death in battle in 160 BC, his younger brother, Jonathan, who was already High Priest, succeeded Judah as army commander. Jonathan made treaties with various foreign states, causing further dissent among those who desired religious freedom over political power. On Jonathan's death in 142 BC, Simon Maccabee, the last remaining son of Mattathias, took power. That same year, Demetrius II, king of Syria, granted the Jews complete political independence and Simon, great high priest and commander of the Jews, went on to found the Hasmonean dynasty. Jewish autonomy lasted until 63 BC, when the Roman general Pompey captured Jerusalem and subjected Judea to Roman rule, while the Hasmonean dynasty itself ended in 37 BC when the Idumean Herod the Great became de facto King of the Jews. Every year Jews celebrate Hanukkah in commemoration of Judah Maccabee's victory over the Seleucids and subsequent miracles.
2 And he said to me, "Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed. 2300 days is 2300 years by Bible numbering. Converting 2300 Jewish calendar years to our calendar (2300 years x 360 days per Jewish year / 365 days/year)= 2268 years. There is no agreement among scholars as to when the book of Daniel was written, with opinions varying from 100 BC to 600 BC. Therefore, considering the 2268 years to be the time from the vision to the restoration, the time of restoration is impossible to determine by arithmetic. However, in Daniel 12, Footnotes 1 and 3 reflect the times referenced by Steven Crisp and George Fox, both early Quakers who dwelled in the kingdom, both of whom wrote that the restoration time was taking place in the time of the Early Quakers. Regarding this specific verse, George Fox in his writing, A Looking Glass for the Jews, wrote to those of his time:
And Daniel heard one saint speak to another, ‘how long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? He said to me, unto two thousand three hundred days, then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.’ Dan 8:13-14. Now, compute this time, and number these days or years, and see in what time period you are. Dan 8.
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